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 Term Definition
Caliber A system of measurement for the internal bore diameter of a rifled-barreled firearm (rifle or pistol).  
Carbine "A carbine is a firearm similar to a rifle or musket. Many carbines, especially modern designs, were developed from rifles, being essentially shortened versions of full rifles firing the same ammunition, although often at a lower velocity. The shorter length and lighter weight of carbines makes them easier to handle in close-quarter situations, or when deploying from vehicles. The disadvantages of carbines are generally poorer long-range accuracy and shorter effective range. "  
Cartridge "A small usually cylindrical packet, containing a detonating primer, a powder charge, a load -- either a single projectile for a rifle or a quantity of small pellets for a shotgun -- and possibly some attendant wadding. "  
Case The envelope (container) of a cartridge. For rifles and handguns it is usually of brass or other metal; for shotguns it is usually of paper or plastic with a metal head and is more often called a "shell."  
Casehardening "Mottled blue/green/brown colors on a shotgun or double rifle receiver, the by-product of a heat-treating process that incorporates carbon into the surface molecular structure of the steel, providing a hard-wearing surface without making the entire receiver brittle. "  
Centerfire "A cartridge, or firearm using a cartridge, with the primer in the center of the cartridge base. "  
Cerakote Cerakote is a Polymer-Ceramic Composite coating that can be applied to metals, plastics, polymers, and wood. The unique formulation used for Cerakote ceramic coating enhances a number of physical performance properties including abrasion/wear resistance, corrosion resistance, chemical resistance, impact strength, and hardness. This state-of-the-art coating technology out-performs any competitive coating in both laboratory settings and real world applications.  
Chamber "An area at the breech end of a barrel, of about the diameter of the cartridge for which the gun was intended, and into which the cartridge is inserted. "  
Checkering A regular pattern of fine grooves cut into the surface of a stock to aid in gripping a gun.  
Cheekpiece "A broad, flat, raised area on the side of a buttstock. "  
Choke "A carefully measured constriction of the bore of a shotgun at the muzzle, designed to control the spread of the shot as it leaves the barrel. "  
Choke Tubes "Short, interchangeable cylinders, of subtly different internal tapers, that screw into a threaded recess at the muzzle of a shotgun. "  
Cocking Indicators Small devices attached to the internal hammer of a gun and visible from the exterior of the gun to show when gun is cocked and when it has been fired.  
Comb "The top of a gun's stock, where a shooter rests their cheek when mounting a gun. "  
Compensator A device attached to the muzzle of a firearm to reduce the upward movement of the muzzle brought about by recoil.  
Cylinder "A revolver part, cylindrical in shape, with firing chambers that rotate to align with the bore. "